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Matthew J. Thurtell

, and Robert L. Tomsak

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date: 06 August 2021

Papilledema is the cardinal clinical sign of increased intracranial pressure. In this chapter, we begin by reviewing the symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure. We next review potential causes of increased intracranial pressure, which include intracranial masses, obstruction of the ventricular system, obstruction of cerebral venous outflow, decrease in cerebrospinal fluid absorption, increase in cerebrospinal fluid secretion, cerebral edema, medications, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We then review the approach to the diagnostic evaluation of increased intracranial pressure, including the recommended neuroimaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid evaluation. Lastly, we discuss the basic management approach for the patient with symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure.

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