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Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia 

Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia

Matthew J. Thurtell

, and Robert L. Tomsak

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date: 27 February 2021

Supranuclear ophthalmoplegia results from an interruption of the saccadic, pursuit, optokinetic, or vergence inputs to the ocular motor nuclei. In this chapter, we begin by reviewing potential causes for difficulty reading. We next review the neuro-ophthalmic and neurologic features of progressive supranuclear palsy, which can include a vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, convergence insufficiency, square-wave jerks, upper-eyelid retraction, reduced blink rate, apraxia of eyelid opening, and blepharospasm. We then discuss the differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy and point out clinical features that help to differentiate these conditions. Lastly, we present a practical approach to the management of the visual symptoms commonly caused by progressive supranuclear palsy.

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