Show Summary Details
Page of

Cardiovascular Disease 

Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular Disease

David A. Wohl

and Jeffrey T. Kirchner

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 31 October 2020

There is a growing body of evidence that HIV-infected persons are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated complications, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Autopsy studies have noted premature atherosclerosis in HIV-infected adults, and epidemiological studies demonstrate higher rates of CVD among HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected patients. These findings are in part due to chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection. Traditional CVD risk factors, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking, also play keys roles. There is additional evidence from observational cohort studies that some antiretroviral drugs, including protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, may increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Treatment interventions to reduce the risk of CVD include diet, exercise, smoking cessation, lipid-lowering agents, and antihypertensive medications. For select patients, changing antiretroviral therapy to improve lipid profiles may be appropriate but should not compromise virologic or immunologic control.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.