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Non-opportunistic Infections: Respiratory Complications 

Non-opportunistic Infections: Respiratory Complications
Chapter:
Non-opportunistic Infections: Respiratory Complications
Author(s):

Karen J. Vigil

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190493097.003.0036
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date: 27 January 2020

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is a common respiratory complication of HIV infection in children but a rare complication in HIV-infected adults. The diagnosis requires histologic confirmation by biopsy. Antiretroviral therapy has been used with success for treatment. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) presents with dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and fever in patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/mm3. The diagnosis of NSIP requires histologic confirmation by biopsy. The optimum treatment remains unclear. The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is higher in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. Potential therapies for HIV-associated PAH include HIV antiretroviral therapy as well as supportive therapy, including oxygen, diuretics, and anticoagulation.

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