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Antiretroviral Therapy in Children and Newborns 

Antiretroviral Therapy in Children and Newborns
Chapter:
Antiretroviral Therapy in Children and Newborns
Author(s):

Karin Nielsen-Saines

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190493097.003.0027
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date: 08 December 2019

HIV-infected infants and children have a different, more progressive disease course compared to that of adults given that early infection leads to sustained, high-magnitude viremia with significant seeding of reservoirs in the first months of life. Early diagnosis of HIV infection is pivotal in the management of infants and prevention of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. The availability of potent pediatric antiretroviral formulations encompassing different classes of drugs for infected infants and young children is limited. Significant advancements have been achieved in the area of infant post-exposure prophylaxis. Early antiretroviral treatment is still the mainstay of pediatric HIV infection, particularly for infants younger than age 12 months, but it is also highly recommended for older children. Early treatment of young infants diagnosed soon after birth appears to be the best approach to reduce the seeding of viral reservoirs and potentially attain prolonged periods of HIV remission off antiretrovirals.

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