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HIV Virology 

HIV Virology
Chapter:
HIV Virology
Author(s):

Schuyler Livingston

, Benjamin Young

, Martin Markowitz

, Poonam Mathur

, and Bruce L. Gilliam

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190493097.003.0017
Page of

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date: 29 January 2020

HIV is a member of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses. Two distinct groups of viruses are pathogenic in humans: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both are transmitted sexually and known to cause immunodeficiency disease. HIV enters the cell through use of the CD4 receptor and chemokine co-receptors, primarily CCR5 and CXCR4. The viral genome is transcribed from RNA to DNA by reverse transcriptase and integrated into the host genome by integrase. The HIV genome encodes 15 proteins, comprising three categories: structural, regulatory, and accessory. After budding from the host cell, the virus matures into its infectious form through cleavage of viral precursor proteins by protease.

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