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Clinical Syndromes and Differential Diagnosis in the HIV-Infected Patient 

Clinical Syndromes and Differential Diagnosis in the HIV-Infected Patient
Chapter:
Clinical Syndromes and Differential Diagnosis in the HIV-Infected Patient
Author(s):

Jose Martagon-Villamil

and Daniel J. Skiest

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190493097.003.0011
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date: 27 October 2020

Acute HIV infection is often missed but should be recognized. Most chronically infected individuals are asymptomatic. However, some patients with chronic HIV infection may present with certain clinical and laboratory abnormalities prior to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection. HIV wasting syndrome is infrequently diagnosed in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recognition of HIV wasting is important because it carries adverse prognostic implications. Management includes a multifaceted approach, including ART, lifestyle and nutritional support, appetite stimulation, and possibly hormonal agents. The newer antigen–antibody test can detect new HIV infection as early as 15 days after exposure. Screening is important because most chronic HIV infection is asymptomatic.

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