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Angela J. Shepherd

and Juliet M. Mckee

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date: 06 May 2021

Osteoporotic fractures are major causes of suffering and death. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the standard of care for diagnosis (T-score ≤ –2.5) of osteoporosis. Prevention of fractures requires addressing bone and muscle strength and balance. Physical exercise, good nutrition (fruits, vegetables, adequate calcium), adequate vitamin intake (C, D, and K), tobacco cessation, and no more than moderate alcohol intake enhance bone health and decrease fracture risk. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids, certain drugs used in breast or prostate cancer treatment, and proton pump inhibitors used for gastroesophageal reflux disease may increase the risk for osteoporosis. Pharmacologically, bisphosphonates are the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment.

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