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Cardiovascular Disease 

Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular Disease

Mara Caroline

, Ryan Bradley

, and Mimi Guarneri

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date: 27 July 2021

The older population is challenging to treat for numerous reasons, including comorbid conditions and increased susceptibility to adverse drug reactions, limiting medical therapy. They are at increased risk for loneliness and depression, which strongly impacts their cardiovascular outcomes, and they also have different values, usually prioritizing quality of life over mortality objectives. Finally, the elderly are underrepresented in cardiovascular clinical trials, thus limiting the applicability of guideline recommendations. This chapter emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive assessment of individual circumstances when assessing cardiovascular health in the elderly population. The chapter focuses on the role of nutrition, resiliency, and exercise for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Nutrient deficiencies commonly seen with cardiovascular drugs are also discussed, as well as specific integrative strategies for optimizing dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in this population.

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