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Renal Parenchymal Diseases 

Renal Parenchymal Diseases
Renal Parenchymal Diseases

Suzanne M. Norby

and Fernando C. Fervenza

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date: 27 September 2020

Volume expansion can be general (as in patients with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome) or regional (as in patients with regional capillary leak, venous insufficiency, or lymphatic obstruction). Volume depletion is associated primarily with gastrointestinal tract (GI) fluid loss, excessive sweating, and renal sodium loss related to diuretic use or, rarely, renal salt wasting. The cause of a volume disorder can be determined by physical examination.

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