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Cardiovascular Physical Examination 

Cardiovascular Physical Examination
Chapter:
Cardiovascular Physical Examination
Author(s):

Kyle W. Klarich

, Lori A. Blauwet

, and Sabrina D. Phillips

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190464868.003.0005
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date: 19 October 2019

Jugular venous pressure reflects right atrial pressure and the relationship between right atrial filling and emptying into the right ventricle. Changes in wave amplitude may indicate structural disease and rhythm changes. Normal jugular venous pressure is 6 to 8 cm H2O. It is best evaluated with the patient supine at an angle of at least 45°. The right atrium lies 5 cm below the sternal angle, and thus the estimated jugular venous pressure equals the height of the jugular venous pressure above the sternal angle + 5 cm.

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