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Immunocompromised Hosts and Microorganism-Specific Syndromes 

Immunocompromised Hosts and Microorganism-Specific Syndromes
Chapter:
Immunocompromised Hosts and Microorganism-Specific Syndromes
Author(s):

Pritish K. Tosh

and M. Rizwan Sohail

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190464868.003.0043
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date: 19 October 2019

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted sexually, perinatally, through parenteral inoculation (eg, intravenous drug injection, occupational exposure), through blood products, and, less commonly, through donated organs or semen. Sexual transmission is the most common means of infection. Conditions that may increase the risk of sexually acquiring HIV infection include traumatic intercourse (ie, receptive anal), ulcerative genital infections (including syphilis, herpes simplex, and chancroid), and lack of male circumcision. The proper use of latex condoms substantially reduces the risk of HIV transmission.

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