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Calcium and Bone Metabolism Disorders 

Calcium and Bone Metabolism Disorders
Calcium and Bone Metabolism Disorders

Marius N. Stan

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date: 19 October 2019

The causes of hypercalcemia are categorized as either parathyroid hormone (PTH) dependent or PTH independent. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in ambulatory patients. A single parathyroid adenoma is the cause in 85% of patients, and multiglandular disease is the cause in the remainder. Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of hypercalcemia. Primary hyperparathyroidism may be sporadic or familial. Familial hyperparathyroidism is usually multiglandular and most commonly a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 or type 2 syndromes.

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