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Acute Respiratory Failure in a Stem Cell Transplant Patient 

Acute Respiratory Failure in a Stem Cell Transplant Patient
Acute Respiratory Failure in a Stem Cell Transplant Patient

Channing C. Twyner

and Arun Subramanian

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date: 02 March 2021

After conditioning chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), hematopoietic stem cells begin to form neutrophils, as evidenced by their appearance in the peripheral blood. This period of myeloid restitution is neutrophil engraftment, defined as an absolute neutrophil count greater than 0.5´109/L on 3 or more consecutive days after ASCT. It is postulated that during this phase, a “cytokine storm” may drive a constellation of symptoms, including noninfectious fever, skin rash, diarrhea, and increased capillary permeability.

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