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Chest Pain and Respiratory Distress 

Chest Pain and Respiratory Distress
Chest Pain and Respiratory Distress

David W. Barbara

and William J. Mauermann

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date: 28 January 2021

Mitral regurgitation (MR) can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute MR involving native mitral valves has various causes that are either organic or functional. Organic causes, such as papillary muscle rupture, chordae tendineae rupture, or leaflet perforation, result in structural defects in the valve. Acute functional MR results from changes in the left ventricle and includes acute-onset cardiomyopathies with ventricular dilatation or ischemia involving the papillary muscle and its adjacent ventricular wall.

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