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Hypoxia and Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates in an Immunosuppressed Patient With Vasculitis 

Hypoxia and Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates in an Immunosuppressed Patient With Vasculitis
Chapter:
Hypoxia and Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates in an Immunosuppressed Patient With Vasculitis
Author(s):

Matthew E. Nolan

and Ulrich Specks

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190464813.003.0028
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date: 20 October 2019

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hypoxia and alveolar infiltrates due to blood filling the alveolar space from disruption of the alveolar-capillary interface. Anemia and hemoptysis are common but not necessary for the diagnosis; as in this case presentation, one-third of patients with DAH do not have hemoptysis at presentation. The organ-wide process of DAH must be distinguished from focal causes of pulmonary hemorrhage, such as tumors, bronchiectasis, or infections. Plain chest imaging shows an alveolar-type infiltrate, with computed tomography showing ground-glass opacification and possibly consolidation. The radiographic distribution of these abnormalities is often diffuse, but it can be focal or patchy.

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