Show Summary Details
Page of

PTSD in Women: Sex Differences and Gonadal Hormones 

PTSD in Women: Sex Differences and Gonadal Hormones
PTSD in Women: Sex Differences and Gonadal Hormones

Lisa Y. Maeng

, and Mohammed R. Milad

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 28 January 2022

This chapter focuses primarily on the influence of female sex as a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevalence rates suggest that women are especially vulnerable to developing PTSD. Despite changes in diagnostic criteria and examination across varied populations, the prevalence of PTSD remains consistently twice as high in women as men. This chapter examines sex differences in both incidence and presentation of PTSD. It then moves to a discussion of the neurobiological factors of PTSD in women, further examining stress and fear regulation mechanisms and the circuitry that may underlie the disproportionate vulnerability to PTSD development in women. The influence of gonadal hormones on PTSD symptomology is also explored in this chapter with a focus on estrogen and progesterone.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.