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NMDA Receptor Antagonists, Gabapentinoids, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Dexamethasone 

NMDA Receptor Antagonists, Gabapentinoids, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Dexamethasone
NMDA Receptor Antagonists, Gabapentinoids, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Dexamethasone

Alexander J. Feng

, George C. Chang Chien

, and Alan D. Kaye

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date: 12 July 2020

Surgical pain is a major obstacle in the recovery of patients. Effective pain management is of upmost importance to optimize a patient’s recovery, decrease medical complications, and increase patient satisfaction. Traditional pain management with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have significant side effect profiles leading to medical complications or insufficient pain management from reluctance of use. Adjuvant analgesic can provide improved pain management with significantly less side effect profile. In addition, the clinician can, with synergistic effects of adjuvant medications, lower the total dosages used, thus lessening the likelihood of the side effects that occur when medications are used alone at a higher dosage. This chapter presents several adjuvant analgesics—NMDA receptor antagonists, gabapentinoids, alpha-2 agonists, and dexamethasone—and evidence for their use. Ultimately, through the use of traditional pain management options along with adjuvant analgesics, the effectiveness of acute pain management can be increased while adverse outcomes are reduced and functional recovery and quality of life improved.

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