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Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations 

Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations
Chapter:
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations
Author(s):

Jeffrey S. Pollak

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190276249.003.0025
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date: 16 September 2019

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are dilated directly, connecting pulmonary arteries and veins with no capillary bed. They are generally congenital and frequently occur in patients with autosomal-dominant hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), so they should be screened for PAVM. HHT causes variable-sized arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) from telangiectases to larger connections and affects mucocutaneous surfaces. Epistaxis is the most common symptom, and these vascular lesions can occur in other organs, including the lungs, central nervous system, liver, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PAVMs can result in hypoxemia with dyspnea, paradoxical embolization with ischemic stroke and abscess formation, and hemorrhage. Treatment consists of embolization of sufficiently sized lesions; antibiotic prophylaxis before procedures prone to produce bacteremia, such as dental processes that can cause abscesses; and avoidance of air or clots in intravenous (IV) lines. Lifelong follow-up is essential to assess for adequacy of embolization and enlargement of PAVMs that are too small to embolize.

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