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Peripheral Malformations 

Peripheral Malformations
Peripheral Malformations

David T. Jacobs

, David C. Moe

, and Patricia E. Burrows

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date: 14 August 2020

This chapter, on peripheral malformations, provides an overview of vascular anomalies encountered in the practice of interventional radiology (IR), with a brief discussion of vascular tumors followed by vascular malformations. These include low-flow lesions, lymphatic malformations (LMs) and venous malformations (VMs); high-flow lesions, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistula (AVF); and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS), the combined vascular lesion syndrome of the lower extremity. The natural history, signs and symptoms, clinical appearance, imaging appearance, and treatment of these lesions will be discussed, and illustrative photographs and radiologic studies of typical cases are provided. In recent years, much has been learned about the genetic basis of vascular malformations, which are caused by somatic mutations in a number of angiogenic proteins. Pharmacological treatment, based on these molecular findings, is available for some lesions. Extensive discussion on the biological basis for vascular anomalies is beyond the scope of this chapter.

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