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Deep Venous System 

Deep Venous System
Chapter:
Deep Venous System
Author(s):

Raja S. Ramaswamy

, and Suresh Vedantham

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190276249.003.0022
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date: 17 September 2019

The lower-extremity venous system includes the superficial, deep, and perforating veins. Veins are composed of intimal, medial, and adventitial layers. The intimal layer rests on the basement membrane and produces many thrombogenic substances, including tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The medial layer consists of three smooth muscle layers interspersed with collagen and elastin. The adventitia is the outermost and thickest layer, containing proportionately more collagen. In this chapter, the discussion focuses on the deep venous system, which provides the main drainage of the lower extremity. Knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, natural history, clinical evaluation, treatment approach, and outcomes is essential to providing patients with the most appropriate care for deep venous disorders.

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