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Lower-Extremity Arteries 

Lower-Extremity Arteries
Lower-Extremity Arteries

Parag J. Patel

, and Diamanto “Amanda” Rigas

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date: 25 September 2020

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerotic disease affecting circulation in the extremities, which carries significant morbidity and mortality. High morbidity and mortality rates and subsequent healthcare costs are associated with PAD. More than 200 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from PAD, and an estimated 8.5 million Americans above the age of 40 are affected by it. This chapter on lower-extremity PAD explores the incidence, risk factors, and patient presentation of the disease. It reviews diagnostic studies, including the ankle-brachial index (ABI), toe-brachial index, and pulse volume recordings (PVRs), as well as imaging studies. The spectrum of patient presentations is discussed, including the Rutherford and Fontaine classification schemes. Treatment options, including medical and endovascular and surgical revascularization, are reviewed as well.

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