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Malformation of the Brain, Skull, and Spine 

Malformation of the Brain, Skull, and Spine
Malformation of the Brain, Skull, and Spine

Lily C. Wong-Kisiel

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date: 05 August 2021

Abnormal development of the central nervous system is a common cause for developmental delay and epilepsy. Understanding of central nervous system malformation begins with an overview of normal embryology. Genetic advances in embryogenesis have unfolded a complex orchestration of gene expressions in place of the traditional developmental epochs (induction, neurulation, proliferation, migration, organization, synaptogenesis, and myelination). Causes of malformation of the central nervous system are multifactorial. Genetic causes, vitamin excess or deficiency, infections, or teratogens any time during pregnancy may disturb the preprogrammed mechanisms.

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