Show Summary Details
Page of

Traumatic Brain Injury 

Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury

Jeffrey T. Jacob

and Eelco F. M. Wijdicks

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 25 July 2021

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of death and long-term disability in people younger than 40 years worldwide. More than a million patients present to emergency departments with this condition in the United States each year; several hundred thousand are admitted for management. Age is generally recognized as the strongest predictor of outcome after TBI, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Current evidence suggests a linear relationship between increasing age and worsening outcome after TBI. The mechanisms of injuries can be summarized as follows: 1) contact forces, 2) acceleration or deceleration forces, 3) cellular responses to injury, and 4) secondary insults from systemic complications. This chapter reviews the diagnostic approach to head trauma and prognosis in brain injury and addresses specific conditions such as concussions and brain hemorrhage.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.