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Traumatic Brain Injury 

Traumatic Brain Injury
Chapter:
Traumatic Brain Injury
Author(s):

Jeffrey T. Jacob

and Eelco F. M. Wijdicks

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190244927.003.0006
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date: 14 October 2019

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of death and long-term disability in people younger than 40 years worldwide. More than a million patients present to emergency departments with this condition in the United States each year; several hundred thousand are admitted for management. Age is generally recognized as the strongest predictor of outcome after TBI, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Current evidence suggests a linear relationship between increasing age and worsening outcome after TBI. The mechanisms of injuries can be summarized as follows: 1) contact forces, 2) acceleration or deceleration forces, 3) cellular responses to injury, and 4) secondary insults from systemic complications. This chapter reviews the diagnostic approach to head trauma and prognosis in brain injury and addresses specific conditions such as concussions and brain hemorrhage.

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