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Classification and Approach to Movement Disorders 

Classification and Approach to Movement Disorders
Classification and Approach to Movement Disorders

Paul E. Youssef

, Kenneth J. Mack

, and Kelly D. Flemming

Page of

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date: 25 July 2021

Movement disorders are conventionally divided into 2 major categories: 1) Hyperkinetic movement disorders (also called dyskinesias) refers to excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude into the normal flow of motor activity. This category includes chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, stereotypies, tics, and tremor. 2) Hypokinetic movement disorders refers to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movement), bradykinesia (slow movement), and rigidity. Parkinsonism is the primary hypokinetic movement disorder. Movement disorders may be further categorized into primary and secondary disorders. In primary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is the primary manifestation of the disorder. In secondary movement disorders, a broader structural, toxic, metabolic, or inherited etiologic factor is responsible for the symptoms.

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