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Pathology and Spectrum of Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseasesa 

Pathology and Spectrum of Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseasesa
Chapter:
Pathology and Spectrum of Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseasesa
Author(s):

Claudia F. Lucchinetti

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190244927.003.0019
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date: 13 October 2019

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of nontraumatic disability in young adults. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Traditionally, MS has been considered an autoimmune disorder consisting of myelin autoreactive T cells that drive an inflammatory process, leading to secondary macrophage recruitment and subsequent myelin destruction. However, accumulating data based on increasing numbers of probes, which can be effectively applied to MS tissue, have indicated that the events involved in the immunopathogenesis of MS may be more complicated. Although MS is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease, a spectrum of inflammatory disorders may result in focal CNS demyelination and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute leukoencephalopathy.

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