Show Summary Details
Page of

Sedation for Refractory Symptoms 

Sedation for Refractory Symptoms
Sedation for Refractory Symptoms

Patti Knight

, Laura A. Espinosa

, and Bonnie Freeman

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 09 May 2021

Suffering at the end of life involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual distress. In most situations, multidisciplinary palliative interventions provide effective comfort, but in some instances, suffering becomes refractory and intolerable. In these circumstances, palliative sedation may be necessary. Drugs most commonly used for palliative sedation are benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, barbiturates, and anesthetics. Midazolam is the most commonly used of these drugs. The drug and route chosen vary based on the route available, location of the patient, and cost, as well as the preference of the provider. Informed consent is obtained with the patient, if possible, or family members. A major role of the palliative care team is to assist families in making the transition in treatment goals from cure to comfort.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.