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Dysphagia, Xerostomia, and Hiccups 

Dysphagia, Xerostomia, and Hiccups
Chapter:
Dysphagia, Xerostomia, and Hiccups
Author(s):

Constance Dahlin

and Audrey Kurash Cohen

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190239442.003.0004
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date: 23 May 2019

Problems involving the oral and gastrointestinal systems are often associated with many diseases and are also common as side effects of treatments. The symptoms of dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), xerostomia (dry mouth), and hiccups are among the most distressing to patients and their family caregivers. This chapter reviews the normal mechanisms of swallowing, the physiologic basis of these symptoms, and the disorders where these symptoms are most likely to occur. Assessment is reviewed along with pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Nutritional alterations to mitigate these symptoms are included. The chapter also reviews the important principle of patient education and family caregiver support in managing symptoms.

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