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The Visual System 

The Visual System
The Visual System

Per Brodal

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date: 26 February 2021

Chapter 16 describes the visual system, from the receptors in the eye to the cerebral cortex. The photoreceptors transform light energy to graded changes of the membrane potential with ensuing release of glutamate. From the photoreceptors, the signals pass to bipolar cells and from these to retinal ganglion cells. The rods are responsible for vision in dim light, whereas the cones require daylight and are necessary for perception of visual details and colors. The retinal ganglion cells leave the eye in the optic nerve and end in the lateral geniculate body. From the lateral geniculate nucleus, signals travel in the optic radiation to the striate area (primary visual cortex). The visual pathways show a precise, retinotopical organization. The area striata performs the first analysis of the visual information, while further processing takes place in extrastriate visual areas.

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