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Structure of the Neuron and Organization of Nervous Tissue 

Structure of the Neuron and Organization of Nervous Tissue
Chapter:
Structure of the Neuron and Organization of Nervous Tissue
Author(s):

Per Brodal

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228958.003.0001
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date: 06 March 2021

Chapter 1 describes the structure of the neuron, which is the main cell of nervous tissue. A neuron is characterized by many shorter processes called dendrites and one long process called an axon, the latter mediating signals to other neurons. The synapse, which is the place where neurons communicate, is described and its functional characteristics briefly mentioned. The central nervous system consists of gray matter, containing neuronal cell bodies, and white matter, consisting of axons. Some basic features of how neurons are interconnected to form neural networks are described. The cytoskeleton is responsible for maintaining the form of neuronal processes and for intracellular transport necessary for synaptic transmission.

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