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Anterotemporal, Basal Temporal, Nasopharyngeal, and Sphenoidal Electrodes and High-Density Arrays 

Anterotemporal, Basal Temporal, Nasopharyngeal, and Sphenoidal Electrodes and High-Density Arrays
Chapter:
Anterotemporal, Basal Temporal, Nasopharyngeal, and Sphenoidal Electrodes and High-Density Arrays
Author(s):

Andrew Schomer

, Margitta Seeck

, Andres M. Kanner

, and Donald L. Schomer

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228484.003.0006
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date: 15 October 2019

Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most frequent type of epilepsy of focal origin in adults. Electroencephalographic evaluation for surgical treatment requires accurate localization of epileptic foci. The yield of detection with scalp electrodes depends on three variables: source and extent of the epileptogenic area relative to the scalp electrodes’ position; electric field generated by the epileptiform activity and the electric vectors’ orientation; and extent of propagation of the epileptiform activity from mesial to temporal lateral regions. Recordings of epileptiform activity of presumed mesial-temporal origin should include additional electrodes such as anterior temporal or basal temporal electrodes or a subtemporal chain. Nasopharyngeal electrodes appear to yield no advantage over anterior temporal or basal temporal electrodes or a subtemporal chain and are associated with discomfort. Sphenoidal electrodes should be considered in special circumstances; reliability is improved if placed under fluoroscopy. High-density scalp recordings allow for even greater resolution and improved spatial sampling.

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