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Recording Principles: Analog and Digital Principles; Polarity and Field Determinations; Multimodal Monitoring; Polygraphy (EOG, EMG, ECG, SAO2) 

Recording Principles: Analog and Digital Principles; Polarity and Field Determinations; Multimodal Monitoring; Polygraphy (EOG, EMG, ECG, SAO2)
Chapter:
Recording Principles: Analog and Digital Principles; Polarity and Field Determinations; Multimodal Monitoring; Polygraphy (EOG, EMG, ECG, SAO2)
Author(s):

Donald L. Schomer

, Charles M. Epstein

, Susan T. Herman

, Douglas Maus

, and Bruce J. Fisch

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228484.003.0005
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date: 15 October 2019

This chapter reviews the technical aspects of recording and reviewing clinical electroencephalograms (EEGs) and related biopotentials. While advances in engineering technology have revolutionized EEG machines, the basic principles underlying accurate representation of brain activity are largely unchanged. The first section reviews the analog EEG components, and the second section discusses analog-to-digital conversion, digital filters, and display and storage parameters. Digital EEG machines are now less expensive and their capabilities far surpass those of analog machines. The third section reviews how electrode positions and systems of signal display (montages) can be used to determine the polarity and field of EEG signals. The final section describes how other biopotentials are acquired and displayed. Polygraphy can provide crucial information on other physiological processes that can impact EEG activity and can help identify potential artifactual signals. We highlight recent advances that allow the recording of a broader range of EEG frequencies and spatial distribution.

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