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Event-Related Potentials: General Aspects of Methodology and Quantification 

Event-Related Potentials: General Aspects of Methodology and Quantification
Chapter:
Event-Related Potentials: General Aspects of Methodology and Quantification
Author(s):

Marco Congendo

, and Fernando H. Lopes da Silva

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228484.003.0039
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date: 20 October 2019

Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be elicited by a variety of stimuli and events in diverse conditions. This chapter covers the methodology of analyzing and quantifying ERPs in general. Basic models (additive, phase modulation and resetting, potential asymmetry) that account for the generation of ERPs are discussed. The principles and requirements of ensemble time averaging are presented, along with several univariate and multivariate methods that have been proposed to improve the averaging procedure: wavelet decomposition and denoising, spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering. We emphasize basic concepts of principal component analysis, common spatial pattern, and blind source separation, including independent component analysis. We cover practical questions related to the averaging procedure: overlapping ERPs, correcting inter-sweep latency and amplitude variability, alternative averaging methods (e.g., median), and estimation of ERP onset. Some specific aspects of ERP analysis in the frequency domain are surveyed, along with topographic analysis, statistical testing, and classification methods.

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