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Recording Techniques Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders and Responsive Stimulation for Epilepsy 

Recording Techniques Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders and Responsive Stimulation for Epilepsy
Chapter:
Recording Techniques Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders and Responsive Stimulation for Epilepsy
Author(s):

Jay L. Shils

, Sepehr Sani

, Ryan Kochanski

, Mena Kerolus

, and Jeffrey E. Arle

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228484.003.0038
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date: 23 October 2019

Neuromodulation therapies are now common treatments for a variety of medically refractory disorders, including movement disorders and epilepsy. While surgical techniques for each disorder vary, electricity is used by both for relieving symptoms. During stereotactic placement of the stimulating electrode, either deep brain stimulation electrodes or cortical strip electrodes, intraoperative neurophysiology is used to localize the target structure. This physiology includes single-unit recordings, neurostimulation evoked response evaluation, and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) to ensure the electrode leads are in the optimal location. Because the functional target for the responsive neurostimulator is more easily visualized on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, intraoperative physiology is used more as a confirmatory tool, in contrast to the more functional localization-based use during electrode placement for movement disorders. This chapter discusses surgical placement of the electrodes for each procedure and the physiological guidance methodology used to place the leads in the optimal location.

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