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Infraslow EEG Activity 

Infraslow EEG Activity
Chapter:
Infraslow EEG Activity
Author(s):

Sampsa Vanhatalo

, and J. Matias Palva

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190228484.003.0032
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date: 21 October 2019

Infraslow electroencephalographic (EEG) activity refers to frequencies below the conventional clinical EEG range that starts at about 0.5 Hz. Evidence suggests that salient EEG signals in the infraslow range are essential parts of many physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, brain is known to exhibit multitude of infraslow processes, which may be observed directly as fluctuations in the EEG signal amplitude, as infraslow fluctuations or intermittency in other neurophysiological signals, or as fluctuations in behavioural performance. Both physiological and pathological EEG activity may range from 0.01 Hz to several hundred Hz. In the clinical context, infraslow activity is commonly observed in the neonatal EEG, during and prior to epileptic seizures, and during sleep and arousals. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the presence of spontaneous infraslow EEG fluctuations or very slow event-related potentials in awake and sleeping subjects. Infraslow activity may not only arise in cortical and subcortical networks but is also likely to involve non-neuronal generators such as glial networks. The full, physiologically relevant range of brain mechanisms can be readily recorded with wide dynamic range direct-current (DC)-coupled amplifiers or full-band EEG (FbEEG). Due to the different underlying mechanisms, a single FbEEG recording can even be perceived as a multimodal recording where distinct brain modalities can be studied simultaneously by performing data analysis for different frequency ranges. FbEEG is likely to become the standard approach for a wide range of applications in both basic science and in the clinic.

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