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Disruption of Diffusion: Inflammation 

Disruption of Diffusion: Inflammation
Chapter:
Disruption of Diffusion: Inflammation
Author(s):

Shahzad Shaefi

, and Aaron Mittel

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190226459.003.0019
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date: 25 September 2020

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) are common conditions in critically ill patients that lead to pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. The nonhydrostatic edema characteristic of ARDS and TRALI is caused by an intense inflammatory response leading to increased microvascular permeability and alveolar injury. TACO is an acute hydrostatic edema temporally associated with events that precipitate lung injury. Lung-protective ventilation is the mainstay of therapy for ARDS and TRALI; optimizing gas exchange is the goal for all three. Prompt recognition is an important skill for perioperative practitioners.

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