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Physiologic Airflow Disruption: Bronchospasm, Obstructive Lung Disease, Asthma, and Status Asthmaticus 

Physiologic Airflow Disruption: Bronchospasm, Obstructive Lung Disease, Asthma, and Status Asthmaticus
Chapter:
Physiologic Airflow Disruption: Bronchospasm, Obstructive Lung Disease, Asthma, and Status Asthmaticus
Author(s):

Kinza Sentissi

, and Stephanie Yacoubian

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190226459.003.0017
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date: 24 September 2020

Airflow disruption can be triggered through multiple mechanisms. The obstruction can stem from within the airway lumen, airway walls, or the tissues surrounding it. This section focuses on airflow disruption initiated by bronchospasm, obstructive lung disease, asthma and status asthmaticus. Bronchospasm presents with increased airway resistance secondary to airway hyperreactivity or anaphylaxis. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive and inflammatory lung pathologies. Airflow disruption in asthma is reversible between exacerbations. The airway obstruction in COPD is not fully reversible. Status asthmaticus is the most severe presentation of asthma and can be life threatening. Poorly controlled obstructive lung disease can result in perioperative complications. Patients should therefore be medically optimized before undergoing operative procedures.

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