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Markus A. Bendel

, Drew M. Trainor

, and Susan M. Moeschler

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date: 23 October 2019

This chapter focuses on diagnostic and procedural imaging techniques that are essential for the pain medicine practitioner. Attention is given to most modern imaging modalities, including ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The chapter includes a review of many advanced pain medicine procedures, such as celiac plexus and stellate ganglion blocks. A discussion regarding the use of imaging to elucidate a problem with an implanted intrathecal drug delivery system is included as well. In addition to the procedure suite, this chapter provides a review of common radiological findings that are critical for the proper diagnosis and management of pain patients, including spondylolysis and Modic changes. Special attention is paid to the use of ultrasound in pain medicine, including diagnostic techniques in musculoskeletal disorders. Many questions contain a review of the significant anatomic considerations with each procedural technique.

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