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Cellular Injury and Death 

Cellular Injury and Death
Cellular Injury and Death

Brian S. Katz

and Eduardo E. Benarroch

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date: 30 September 2020

Cell death is a result of several complex interconnected mechanisms simultaneously occurring in the cell’s organelles, namely, necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. While different morphologically and biochemically, these processes are not mutually exclusive and commonly coexist in cell loss in vascular, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. The 3 pathways of cellular injury and death are 1) external forced cell death or necrosis; 2) programmed nuclear cell death, including apoptosis; and 3) autophagic cell death. These processes may affect neurons, glial cells, endothelial cells, and ependymal cells. The cell death pathways differ in their triggering factors, temporal profile, biochemical mechanisms, and morphologic markers.

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