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Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and Other Stimulants 

Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and Other Stimulants
Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and Other Stimulants

Darius A. Rastegar

and Michael I. Fingerhood

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date: 07 April 2020

Stimulants are sympathomimetic substances that include cocaine, methamphetamine, and cathinones. Acute effects include tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, and euphoria. High doses of stimulants may lead to cardiac arrhythmia, severe hypertension, agitation, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, stroke, hyperthermia, or rhabdomyolysis. Regular users may experience dysphoria, fatigue, insomnia, and agitation with abstinence. A number of psychosocial modalities appear to reduce stimulant use among selected users; these include individual or group counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy, contingency management, and community reinforcement. Long-acting amphetamines have been shown to reduce other stimulant use, but not complications. Caffeine has mild stimulant effects and may lead to a mild dependence syndrome.

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