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The Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study 

The Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study
The Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study

Elizabeth B. Owens

, Christine A. Zalecki

, and Stephen P. Hinshaw

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date: 29 June 2022

We describe the initiation and evolution of the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study, an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study of 140 girls diagnosed with ADHD when they were children during the late 1990s, as well as 88 matched comparison girls. Study rationale, design, procedures, recruitment strategy, and measures are described in detail. Primary psychosocial and neuropsychological findings during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are summarized. Our initial findings regarding predictors of outcome are presented. Results are discussed in light of the existing literature regarding long-term outcome among children with ADHD. Overall, during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, in almost every psychosocial and neuropsychological domain we investigated, females with ADHD show sizable disadvantages and deficits relative to females without ADHD. Our findings affirm the public health significance of ADHD in girls, given the likelihood of persisting symptoms and (especially) impairment in crucial domains over the long-term.

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