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Long-Term Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The New York Study 

Long-Term Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The New York Study
Chapter:
Long-Term Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The New York Study
Author(s):

Sylviane Houssais

, Lily Hechtman

, and Rachel G. Klein

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190213589.003.0003
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date: 19 May 2022

This chapter summarizes the long-term clinical and functional outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD at a mean age of eight years (probands), followed prospectively for 33 years. Outcomes are summarized in adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-adulthood. Compared with matched controls, probands showed greater persistence of ADHD and greater prevalence of Conduct Disorder (CD), Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) in late adolescence. These dysfunctions continued into early adulthood, even when ADHD remitted for the majority of the sample, and were associated with deficits in educational and occupational attainment. The disproportionally high rate of CD, APD, and SUD translated to significantly higher rates of criminality, risk-taking behavior, risk-related medical outcomes, and elevated obesity rates in adulthood. The study’s findings suggest that childhood ADHD predisposes to maladjustment in adolescence and adulthood, particularly in a subset of individuals who develop CD/APD early on.

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