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Adolescent and Adult Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Montreal Study 

Adolescent and Adult Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Montreal Study
Chapter:
Adolescent and Adult Outcomes of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Montreal Study
Author(s):

Mariya V. Cherkasova

, Gabrielle Weiss

, and Lily Hechtman

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190213589.003.0002
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date: 28 January 2022

The Montreal study was the first to conduct a long-term follow-up for children with ADHD into adolescence and adulthood. Contrary to the conventional belief at the time, the study found that the children did not generally outgrow ADHD as they entered adolescence. Many continued to have symptoms of the disorder and to show functional impairments, such as academic underachievement, employment instability, antisocial behavior, and increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Outcomes in adulthood fell into three general categories: (1) ~30% had fairly normal functioning; (2) ~60% had continuing problems with ADHD symptoms, as well as work, family, interpersonal, social, and emotional difficulties; (3) ~10% had serious psychiatric and antisocial pathology, problematic substance use, and criminality. Outcome predictors were identified, including personal characteristics (e.g., symptom severity, IQ), family characteristics (e.g., parenting styles), and social context (e.g., peer relationships).

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