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Bacteria

Bacteria  

Simon M. Fox, Angela M. Minassian, Thomas Rawlinson, and Brian J. Angus

in Infection in the Immunocompromised Host (Oxford Specialist Handbook)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2018
eISBN: 
9780191831614
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198789987.003.0014
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198789987
Chapter 14 Bacteria Introduction Introduction Chapter 14 Bacteria 336 Mycobacteria Mycobacteria Mycobacteria 337 Mycobacteria-related bacteria Mycobacteria-related bacteria Refer to 344 Gram-positive bacteria Gram-positive bacteria Gram-positive bacteria 347 Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria 352 Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria 360 Introduction Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility
Bacteria

Bacteria  

M. Estée Török, Fiona J. Cooke, and Ed Moran

in Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191841927
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199671328.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Pathology, Medical Microbiology and Virology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199671328
hyaluronidase, neuraminidase; ● synergy between anaerobic and facultative bacteria (see Box Box 7.9 Synergy in anaerobic infections 7.9 ). Box 7.9 Synergy in anaerobic infections ● Infections involving anaerobes usually contain multiple anaerobic bacteria, as well as facultative anaerobic bacteria. ● Evidence suggests true synergy between anaerobic and facultative bacteria, with formation of abscesses occurring more readily with infections involving both groups of bacteria than either alone. ● Facultative organisms may lower the oxidation
Anaerobic bacteria

Anaerobic bacteria  

Anilrudh A. Venugopal and David W. Hecht

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0115
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
8.6.11 Anaerobic bacteria Anilrudh A. Venugopal and David W. Hecht Essentials Anaerobic bacteria will not grow when incubated with 10% CO 2 in room air, but they vary in their tolerance of different levels of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria are important commensal flora of the skin and oral, intestinal, and pelvic mucosae, and are classified according to their Gram-staining characteristics and ability to produce spores: (1) Gram-positive—cocci, non-spore-forming bacilli, and spore-forming bacilli (notably the Clostridium spp.); (2) Gram-neg
Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria  

Mike Sharland (ed.)

in Manual of Childhood Infections (Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Paediatrics): The Blue Book (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks, OSHs in Paediatrics
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191796142
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0027
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Paediatrics, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198729228
important Gram-positive bacteria can be conveniently categorized, based on microscopic appearances, cultural characteristics, and some simple laboratory tests ( Fig. 27.1 ). Fig. 27.1 Categorization of Gram-positive infections. Epidemiology • Gram-positive bacteria, such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae , and β ‎-haemolytic streptococci are among the commonest causes of infections of all degrees of severity in children. Asymptomatic colonization with these bacteria is also common. • Other serious infections with Gram-positive bacteria, such as listeriosis,
Summary of medically important bacteria

Summary of medically important bacteria  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Chapter Chapter 6 Infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria 6 ) • Rickettsia (see Classification Rickettsiae: Classification , p. Rickettsiae: general principles 46 ) • Anaplasma / Ehrlichia (see Classification of intracellular bacteria Classification of intracellular bacteria , p. Classification of intracellular bacteria 45 ) • Chlamydia (see Classification of intracellular bacteria Classification of intracellular bacteria , p. Classification of intracellular bacteria 45 ) • Coxiella (see Microbiology Q fever: Microbiology
Infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria

Infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0006
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Chapter 6 Infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria Classification of intracellular bacteria Classification of intracellular bacteria Classification of intracellular bacteria 45 Rickettsiae: general principles Rickettsiae: general principles Rickettsiae: general principles 46 Rickettsiae: specific examples Rickettsiae: specific examples Rickettsiae: specific examples 47 Trachoma Chlamydia trachomatis Trachoma ( Chlamydia trachomatis ) Trachoma Chlamydia trachomatis 48 Q Fever Coxiella burnetii Q fever ( Coxiella burnetii
Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria

Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria  

David R. McNamara and Franklin R. Cockerill III

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Mayo Clinic Scientific Press
Published Online: 
Jun 2012
eISBN: 
9780199929641
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
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9780199827626
7 Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria David R. McNamara, MD Franklin R. Cockerill III, MD I. Introduction A. Diversity of Gram-negative Bacteria 1. May be rod-shaped (bacilli), spherical (cocci), oval, helical, or filamentous a. Cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a cell wall consisting of a peptidoglycan layer and an outer cell membrane b. Flagellae that are present on some species confer motility 2. Widely distributed in the natural environment a. Commensals with many animals b. Vital role in normal human physiology as intestinal commensals B. Cause
Select Gram-positive Aerobic Bacteria

Select Gram-positive Aerobic Bacteria  

Robin Patel

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Mayo Clinic Scientific Press
Published Online: 
Jun 2012
eISBN: 
9780199929641
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0006
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199827626
6 Select Gram-positive Aerobic Bacteria Robin Patel, MD I. Gram-positive Cocci A. Staphylococci 1. Features a. Gram-positive cocci in clusters b. Catalase-positive c. Multiple species ( Table 6.1 ) 2. Staphylococcus aureus a. Cell wall: peptidoglycan and ribitol teichoic acid b. Protein A: binds Fc region of IgG, competes with phagocytic cells for IgG Fc sites, prevents opsonization c. Yellow colonies, β ‎-hemolytic, ferments mannitol d. Free coagulase: if incubated with rabbit or human plasma, S aureus causes clotting (coagulase activates prothrombin)
Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria

Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Chapter 2 Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ) Anthrax Bacillus anthracis 7 Clostridia Clostridia Clostridia 8 Botulism Clostridium botulinum Botulism ( Clostridium botulinum ) Clostridia 8 Tetanus Clostridium tetani Tetanus ( Clostridium tetani ) Tetanus Clostridium tetani 9 Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria ( Corynebacterium diphtheriae ) Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae 10 Classification of Streptococci Classification of streptococci Clas
Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria

Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0004
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Chapter 4 Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria Eschericia coli E. coli Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) Eschericia coli E. coli 22 Shigella e.g. Shigella dysenteriae Shigella (e.g. Shigella dysenteriae ) Shigella e.g. Shigella dysenteriae 23 Typhoid/paratyphoid Salmonella typhi/paratyphi Typhoid/paratyphoid ( Salmonella typhi / paratyphi ) Typhoid/paratyphoid Salmonella typhi/paratyphi 24 Non-typhoidal salmonellae Non-typhoidal salmonellae Non-typhoidal salmonellae 26 Melioid Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioid ( Burkholderia ps
Select Anaerobic Bacteria: Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum

Select Anaerobic Bacteria: Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum  

M. Rizwan Sohail

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Mayo Clinic Scientific Press
Published Online: 
Jun 2012
eISBN: 
9780199929641
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0008
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199827626
8 Select Anaerobic Bacteria: Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum M. Rizwan Sohail, MD I. Clostridium tetani A. Introduction 1. Tetanus: nervous system disorder characterized by intense, painful muscle spasms 2. Causative agent: Clostridium tetani 3. Well-known disease from ancient times 4. Tetanus is prevalent in developing countries, but it is rare in developed nations owing to universal childhood vaccination 5. Common modes of acquisition: puncture wounds, gunshot wounds, burns, compound fractures, and contaminated or unsterile injections B.
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and healthcare-acquired infections

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and healthcare-acquired infections  

Sebastian G. B. Amyes

in Antibacterial Chemotherapy (Oxford Infectious Diseases Library): Theory, Problems, and Practice

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Infectious Diseases Library
Published Online: 
May 2011
eISBN: 
9780191740428
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199581368.003.0007
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse, Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Medical Oncology, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581368
are represented by bacteria from a relatively small number of genetic clusters, often referred to as clones. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA The organism that we refer to as MRSA is not the same as the MRSA which emerged in the late 1970s, following the introduction of methicillin to deal with β ‎-lactamase producing S. aureus . Then the bacteria were treated with aminoglycosides and rapidly decreased. The bacteria that emerged resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides were the harbingers of MRSA we see today. They are multi-resistant bacteria, rather than just
A checklist of bacteria associated with infection in humans

A checklist of bacteria associated with infection in humans  

John Paul

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0151
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
8.6.47 A checklist of bacteria associated with infection in humans John Paul Essentials In addition to a relatively small number of well-known pathogenic bacteria that infect otherwise healthy people (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Streptococcus pyogenes ), there is a steadily growing list of less well-known organisms, many of which cause disease only under special circumstances. Bacteria associated with infections in humans are listed in the table that forms the bulk of this chapter, which has been designed
Gram-negative infections

Gram-negative infections  

Mike Sharland (ed.)

in Manual of Childhood Infections (Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Paediatrics): The Blue Book (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks, OSHs in Paediatrics
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191796142
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0028
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Paediatrics, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198729228
organisms Name and nature of the organisms Non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria Non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria Future research Future research What’s new? What’s new? What’s next? What’s next? Further reading Further reading Name and nature of the organisms These bacteria fall into two categories: • Enterobacteriaceae (coliforms): bacteria whose natural habitat is the GI tract of humans and other animals. • Non-(lactose) fermentative bacteria whose natural habitats are principally the environment inside and outside hospital
Microbiology: the basics

Microbiology: the basics  

Valerie Edwards-Jones

in Essential Microbiology for Wound Care

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191784231
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198716006.003.0002
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Pathology, Medical Microbiology and Virology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716006
procedure and distinguishes between two classes of bacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It makes use of a primary stain (crystal violet) which complexes with the cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria and stains them purple, and a secondary stain (safranin) which counterstains the other bacteria red, where the complex is not formed (Gram-negative). Examples of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are shown in Figure 2.2 . Figure 2.2 Gram-positive (left) and Gram-negative (right) bacteria. Other staining methods are available that show
Collection, transport, and laboratory processing of wound, tissue, and bone samples

Collection, transport, and laboratory processing of wound, tissue, and bone samples  

Geoff Edwards-Jones

in Essential Microbiology for Wound Care

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191784231
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198716006.003.0003
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Pathology, Medical Microbiology and Virology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716006
optimum temperature where growth is most rapid and luxuriant. This optimum temperature is usually 35–37°C. Oxygen The oxygen requirements of bacteria can be divided into the following three groups: 1 Aerobic bacteria—only grow in the presence of oxygen (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) 2 Anaerobic bacteria—only grow in the absence of oxygen (e.g. Clostridium spp.) 3 Facultative anaerobic bacteria—can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus ). Laboratory incubators are set to provide the optimum temperature and there
Antibacterials

Antibacterials  

Mike Sharland (ed.)

in Manual of Childhood Infections (Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Paediatrics): The Blue Book (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks, OSHs in Paediatrics
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191796142
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Paediatrics, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198729228
resistance of these bacteria to β ‎-lactams and other antimicrobials (see later) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria with varied resistance mechanisms (extended-spectrum β ‎-lactamase, ESBL; Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, KPC; and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , CRE) are a major concern, especially in the hospital setting. • Pseudomonas spp. may be susceptible to extended-spectrum penicillins (like piperacillin/tazobactam), ceftazidime, cefepime and meropenem, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Other bacteria predictable
Pneumonia

Pneumonia  

Terry Robinson and Jane Scullion

in Oxford Handbook of Respiratory Nursing (2 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2021
Series: 
Oxford Handbooks in Nursing
Published Online: 
Feb 2021
eISBN: 
9780191886584
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198831815.003.0017
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Medical Skills, Nursing Skills, Clinical Medicine, Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198831815
ve and Gram-negative bacteria Identifying bacteria in the laboratory involves culturing the bacteria on solid media in petri dishes and then examining the growth both visually and by staining the bacteria prior to examination under the microscope. The most common staining is known as Gram’s method. Bacteria are stained a deep purple with a mixture of violet dye and iodine which attaches to the magnesium ribonucleate present in some bacteria. If the purple colour cannot be washed out readily with alcohol the bacteria is Gram-positive. Bacteria without magnesium ribonucleate
Sensitivity and identification tests

Sensitivity and identification tests  

Sebastian G. B. Amyes

in Antibacterial Chemotherapy (Oxford Infectious Diseases Library): Theory, Problems, and Practice

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Infectious Diseases Library
Published Online: 
May 2011
eISBN: 
9780191740428
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199581368.003.0004
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse, Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Medical Oncology, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581368
regions within the health area. Identification of bacteria and molecular tests Phenotypic identification of bacteria is often based on tests that were devised over 100 years ago. They are dependent on the expression of genes and may not be accurate but also may fail to distinguish between a pathogen and closely-related non-pathogenic strains. Phenotypic identification by automated methods, such as VITEK 2, is more accurate; however, recently a number of molecular tests have been introduced for the identification of bacteria. These are usually based on the polymerase chain
Immunosenescence and infectious diseases

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Michel Moutschen, Henri Martens, and Vincent Geenen

in Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine (3 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2017
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Dec 2017
eISBN: 
9780191807190
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198701590.003.0079
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Geriatric Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701590
pulmonary infections and overrepresentation of senescent T-cells ( Lucas et al. , 2014 ). Encapsulated bacteria Encapsulated bacteria are covered by a polysaccharidic capsule which prevents direct phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. The main encapsulated bacteria are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type B , and Neisseria meningitidis . The specific feature of host-parasite relationship regarding these bacteria is the fact that their phagocytosis must be facilitated by humoral products of the immune response (i.e.

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