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Viruses

Viruses  

M. Estée Török, Fiona J. Cooke, and Ed Moran

in Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191841927
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199671328.003.0008
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Pathology, Medical Microbiology and Virology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199671328
simplex Herpes simplex Varicella-zoster virus Varicella-zoster virus Infectious mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis Epstein–Barr virus Epstein–Barr virus Viral gastroenteritis Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus Rotavirus Norovirus Norovirus Astroviruses Astroviruses Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis D virus Hepatitis D virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis viruses Hepatitis viruses HIV virology and immunology HIV virology
Viruses

Viruses  

Chris Boshoff

in Oxford Textbook of Oncology (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810831
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199656103.003.0015
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Medical Oncology, Radiology, Clinical Oncology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199656103
Chapter 15 Viruses Chris Boshoff Introduction to viruses Viral infection accounts for 15% of all human cancers. Seven viruses are known to be implicated in human malignancy ( Table 15.1 ). The immune system is crucial in controlling oncogenic virus-infected cells, as is exemplified by the increased incidence of virus-induced cancers in immunosuppressed individuals. Oncogenesis is a multifactorial process and only a fraction of infected individuals will develop a tumour, particularly in the absence of immunosuppression. Tumour viruses establish long-term
Viruses

Viruses  

Simon M. Fox, Angela M. Minassian, Thomas Rawlinson, and Brian J. Angus

in Infection in the Immunocompromised Host (Oxford Specialist Handbook)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2018
eISBN: 
9780191831614
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198789987.003.0011
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198789987
Varicella zoster virus (VZV/HHV-3) Varicella zoster virus (VZV/HHV-3) 258 HHV-7 HHV-7 HHV-7 261 Hepatitis viruses Hepatitis viruses Hepatitis viruses 262 Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis viruses 263 Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B 265 Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C 267 Hepatitis D Hepatitis D Hepatitis D 269 Hepatitis E Hepatitis E Hepatitis E 270 Retroviruses Retroviruses Retroviruses 271 Respiratory viruses Respiratory viruses Respiratory viruses 272 Other viruses of particular relevance in the immunocompromised Other
Respiratory viruses

Respiratory viruses  

Mark Harrison Dr

in Revision Notes for the FRCEM Primary (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Series: 
Oxford Specialty Training, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Notes
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191835971
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198765875.003.0027
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198765875
every 10–20 years: ● If a cell is infected with 2 distinct influenza viruses, the genomic RNA of both parental viruses is replicated and progeny viruses are assembled that contain segments from both parents, creating a new and different virus ● Where humans live in close proximity to farm animals, new viral subtypes are more likely to develop as reassortment can occur between influenza A viruses from different animal/bird species ● Because of antigenic shift, new types of virus appear that have not been in circulation for many years, therefore many people
Gastrointestinal viruses

Gastrointestinal viruses  

Mark Harrison Dr

in Revision Notes for the FRCEM Primary (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Series: 
Oxford Specialty Training, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Notes
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191835971
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198765875.003.0028
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198765875
Chapter C16 Gastrointestinal viruses Contents 16.1 16.1 Rotavirus Rotavirus 16.2 16.2 Norovirus Norovirus 16.1 Rotavirus 16.1.1 Epidemiology ● Causes severe gastroenteritis, especially in children and infants. ● Responsible for 50% of cases of severe diarrhoea in children under 2 years. ● Seasonal variation in incidence, peaking in winter months. ● Faecal–oral transmission from contaminated food, water, and surfaces. ● Rotavirus survives for extended periods on surfaces
Viruses and cancer

Viruses and cancer  

Robin A. Weiss

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0101
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
screening for the virus in order to prevent transmission, and immunization as in the cases of hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus. Viruses as aetiological agents of cancer Oncogenic viruses establish persistent infections, which usually occur decades before malignancy. Table 8.5.26.1 lists the viruses implicated in human cancer. In most, but not all cases, the viral genome is present in the malignant cells; the exceptions appear to be those that promote cancer indirectly, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Several of these viruses and the n
Newly discovered viruses

Newly discovered viruses  

Susannah J.A. Froude and Harriet C. Hughes

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Sep 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0104_update_001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
addition to respiratory coronaviruses, emerging viruses that might be of particular global public health importance include Zika virus and severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Other emerging viruses of importance include bocavirus, Bufavirus, PARV4, human parechovirus, Itaya, Heartland, and Bourbon virus. The human pathogenicity of other emerging viruses is less certain. Coronaviruses Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, SARS-CoV-1) Coronaviruses (CoV) are single-stranded RNA viruses commonly associated with respiratory illness
Respiratory tract viruses

Respiratory tract viruses  

Malik Peiris

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Sep 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0076_update_001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
1968) that arose through genetic reassortment of an avian virus with the prevailing human seasonal influenza virus, the pandemic virus of 2009 arose through reassortment between swine viruses previously documented in North America (so called ‘triple reassortant’ swine viruses that contained virus gene segments of swine, avian and human origin) and ‘Eurasian-swine’ viruses. Although the H1 haemagglutinin of both seasonal human and swine influenza viruses was originally derived from the 1918 ‘Spanish flu’ H1N1 virus, they had antigenically diverged during their subsequent
Blood-borne viruses

Blood-borne viruses  

Shirelle Burton-Fanning and Sheila Waugh

in Oxford Textbook of Fundamentals of Surgery

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Surgery
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810817
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199665549.003.0023
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Surgery
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199665549
associations. Other viruses Hepatitis D virus is blood-borne, but can only infect individuals also infected with HBV. A number of recently identified viruses have been linked to the blood-borne transmission route (e.g. GB virus, TT virus, and Parv4); however, no specific disease associations have been identified. Many other viruses have a viraemic phase during infection; however, this is usually of short duration and is not the principal route of transmission (e.g. cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus). Prevention
Marburg and Ebola viruses

Marburg and Ebola viruses  

A. Simpson, E. Aarons, and R. Hewson

in Oxford Textbook of Zoonoses: Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2011
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Public Health
Published Online: 
Jul 2011
eISBN: 
9780199697823
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198570028.003.0038
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198570028
species. The species currently contains two distinct viruses: Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). There is greater divergence within the Ebolavirus genus and currently five species are recognized: Zaire ebolavirus (the type species; a virus in this species is Ebola virus, abbreviated EBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (including Sudan virus (SUDV)), Reston ebolavirus (including Reston virus (RESTV)), Tai Forest ebolavirus (including Tai Forest virus (TAFV)), and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (including Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)). For several years, the family Filoviridae
Select Viruses in Adults

Select Viruses in Adults  

Randall C. Walker

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Mayo Clinic Scientific Press
Published Online: 
Jun 2012
eISBN: 
9780199929641
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0005
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199827626
least not in the above special populations 3. Specifically, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, mumps virus, human parvovirus B19, and coxsackievirus 4. Topics: reviews of these viruses, focusing on differentiating clinical features, diagnostic tools and treatment, and salient microbiologic and epidemiologic factors II. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 A. Characteristics 1. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) attains latency in sensory neurons 2. Virus reactivation results in shedding from mucosal and cutaneous tissues supplied
Blood-borne viruses

Blood-borne viruses  

Paul Grime and Christopher Conlon

in Fitness for Work: The Medical Aspects (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780191846571
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198808657.003.0034
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198808657
to completely inhibit viral replication. This is a highly specialized area of treatment. Hepatitis B virus HBV is a small DNA virus which has a major envelope protein, HBsAg, usually called the surface antigen. Contained within this envelope are the core antigen (HBcAg) and the ‘e’ antigen (HBeAg). These two antigens share about 90% of the same amino acids but are structurally quite distinct. Viral replication is complicated and if the virus is not cleared, viral DNA can persist within the hepatocyte nucleus and can act as a template for viral replication
Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus)

Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus)  

Matthew Cramp, Ashwin Dhanda, and Nikolai V. Naoumov

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0096
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
Hepatitis viruses (excluding hepatitis C virus) Matthew Cramp , Ashwin Dhanda , and Nikolai V. Naoumov Essentials The group of hepatitis viruses includes five unrelated human viruses (A to E), which differ in their genome organization, biology, and epidemiology, while being united by their hepatotropism. About 10–15% of cases of viral hepatitis are considered as non-A to E hepatitis, whose aetiology is still unknown, but the search for which has led to the identification of several new viruses (e.g. hepatitis G virus or GB virus-C, TT, and SEN viruses) of
Summary of medically important viruses

Summary of medically important viruses  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
important viruses Classification of viruses Classification of viruses Classification of viruses 56 Classification of viruses The box below gives an outline of many medically important viruses but is not intended to be a fully comprehensive summary. Sizes given are the approximate diameter of an average virion Classification DNA viruses RNA viruses Adenoviridae: dsDNA, 80 nm • Adenovirus—multiple serotypes Hepadnaviridae: ds/ssDNA, Circular genome, 50 nm • Hepatitis B virus (see p.
Infections caused by DNA viruses

Infections caused by DNA viruses  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0008
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Chapter 8 Infections caused by DNA viruses Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepadnavirus) Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepadnavirus) Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepadnavirus) 58 Smallpox Variola Smallpox ( Variola ) Smallpox Variola 60 Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepadnavirus) Microbiology Diagnosis Symptoms Management • Remember to offer testing for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, HIV • Measure hepatitis B virus DNA level • Measure ALT • Assess liver fibrosis/cirrhosis
Infections caused by RNA viruses

Infections caused by RNA viruses  

Philippa C. Matthews

in Tropical Medicine Notebook

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801365
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0009
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737773
Hepatitis a virus (HAV) Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Hepatitis a virus (HAV) 68 Rotavirus Rotavirus Rotavirus 69 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 70 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 73 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 74 Hepatitis E virus (HEV) Hepatitis E virus (HEV) Hepatitis E virus (HEV) 75 Rabies Rabies Rabies 76 Ebola virus disease (EVD) Ebola virus disease
The epidemiology of hepatitis viruses in chronic kidney disease

The epidemiology of hepatitis viruses in chronic kidney disease  

Fabrizio Fabrizi and Michel Jadoul

in Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology: Three-Volume Pack (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2015
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2015
eISBN: 
9780191779145
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199592548.003.0129
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Nephrology, Surgery
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199592548
Kohler, H. (2002). Hepatitis B virus infection in haemodialysis patients. Semin Nephrol , 22, 340–50. Go, A. , Chertow, G. , Fan, D. , et al . (2004). Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalizations. N Engl J Med , 351, 1296–305. Iwasa, Y. , Otsubo, S. , Suqi, O. , et al . (2008). Patterns in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection at the start of haemodialysis in Japan. Clin Exp Nephrol , 12, 53–7. Kumar, H. , Naqvi, S. , Ahmed, A. , et al . (1994). Hepatitis C virus antibodies in haemodialyzed versus
Zika Virus

Zika Virus  

Jennifer S. Read

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Jan 2018
eISBN: 
9780190604844
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780190604813.003.0015
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190604813
et al. Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2016;128:724–730. 76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Zika Virus—Prevention. Accessed on May 8, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/index.html . 77. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Zika Virus—Prevention—Prevent Mosquito Bites . Accessed on May 8, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/prevent-mosquito-bites.html . 78. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Zika Virus—Prevention—Protect Yourself During
Rubella Virus

Rubella Virus  

Emmaculate Lebo and Susan Reef

in Congenital and Perinatal Infections

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Jan 2018
eISBN: 
9780190604844
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780190604813.003.0013
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190604813
rubella virus in cell culture or rapid detection of rubella RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Throat and nasopharyngeal swabs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine, blood, lens aspirate, or postmortem tissues may be tested for rubella virus. Although many cell lines are susceptible to rubella, Vero cells are typically used for virus isolation. Since rubella virus does not produce a distinct cell cytopathic effect, detection of rubella proteins or RNA is necessary to confirm the presence of virus in the culture. CRS infants excrete virus for months
West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis

West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis  

Don Gilden

in Neuroinfections

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2013
Series: 
What Do I Do Now
Published Online: 
Nov 2013
eISBN: 
9780199348985
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199926633.003.0006
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Neurology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199926633
King MK, DeMasters BK, Tyler KL. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Ann Neurol60 (3):286–300; 2006. Reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons.) The combined clinical, CSF, and MRI features are characteristic of meningoencephalitis. The skin rash and deep-seated lesions on MRI provide important clues to the causative agent. The skin rash could be produced by meningococcus, tick-borne rickettsial disease such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, an enterovirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV), or West Nile virus (WNV). Syphilis and Lyme disease also cause

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