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Cytokines

Cytokines  

Iain B. McInnes

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191809019
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0031
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780198746690
over time. Increasingly, cytokines might also be usefully organized on the basis of their cooperative functional properties and thereby assigned to a given immunologic process (e.g. T-cell activation, T-cell differentiation, or tissue repair). One cytokine can contribute to several activities and one cytokine superfamily can by corollary contribute to many discrete immunologic processes. Basic cytokine biology See Fig. 3.3.1 . Fig. 3.3.1 Cytokines mediate pleiotropic activities within complex cellular systems. Cytokines form coordinated networks
Cytokines and inflammatory markers

Cytokines and inflammatory markers  

Stamatis Adamopoulos, Panagiota Georgiadou, and Vassilios Voudris

in Oxford Textbook of Heart Failure

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2011
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Cardiology
Published Online: 
Jul 2011
eISBN: 
9780199697809
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199577729.003.0016
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse, Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199577729
may, at least partially, modulate the proinflammatory cytokine milieu. However, therapies tested so far have been largely disappointing. The ‘ cytokine hypothesis’ In the early 1980s, cytokines were first characterized as a new group of peptides. They are secreted by different cell types and mediate cell-to-cell interactions via specific cell-surface receptors. They regulate key aspects of various cellular functions, such as activation, expansion, differentiation, and death. 9 , 10 The best-studied of these cytokines is tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Comparatively less
Cytokines and depression:             experimental evidence and intermediate mechanisms

Cytokines and depression: experimental evidence and intermediate mechanisms  

Robert Dantzer, Jason C. O’Connor, Nathalie Castanon, Jacques Lestage, and Keith W. Kelley

in Understanding Depression: A translational approach

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2009
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2013
eISBN: 
9780191768859
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199533077.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Psychiatry
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199533077
sufficient to activate the immune system of laboratory animals to have an etiopathogenic model of cytokine -induced depression. As we will Cytokines induce depressive-like behaviour see below , this is indeed the case but some precautions are necessary to dissociate cytokine -induced depression from cytokine -induced sickness behaviour. Cytokines induce depressive-like behaviour Raz Yirmiya was the first one to
Growth factors and cytokines in renal bone disease

Growth factors and cytokines in renal bone disease  

Esther A. González and Kevin J. Martin

in The Spectrum of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2010
Series: 
Oxford Clinical Nephrology Series
Published Online: 
Nov 2012
eISBN: 
9780191753350
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199559176.003.009
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology, Nephrology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199559176
to the effects of the well known calciotropic hormones, normal bone remodeling appears to depend on the integrated effects of a variety of growth factors and cytokine systems. There are many abnormalities in the setting of chronic kidney disease, not only in circulating hormones, but also in terms of systemic inflammatory responses associated with abnormalities in a variety of cytokines . Since these cytokines appear to impact upon the bone remodeling cycle, they are likely to modify the active cellular processes of bone, and thus alter the manifestations of renal
Cytokines as central to peripheral sensitization and hyperalgesia

Cytokines as central to peripheral sensitization and hyperalgesia  

John Schutzer-Weissmann

in Landmark Papers in Pain: Seminal Papers in Pain with Expert Commentaries

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Series: 
Landmark Papers in
Published Online: 
Sep 2018
eISBN: 
9780191800924
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198834359.003.0030
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Researcher
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Pain Medicine, Palliative Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198834359
no studies in neuropathic pain syndromes but IL-1 β ‎ remains a promising target for future therapies. References Clark, A. K. , Old, E. A. , and Malcangio, M. (2013). Neuropathic pain and cytokines : Current perspectives. Journal of Pain Research , 6, 803–14. Cunha, J. M. , Cunha, F. Q. , Poole, S. , and Ferreira, S. H. (2000). Cytokine -mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. British Journal of Pharmacology , 130(6), 1418–24. Ferreira, S. H. , Lorenzetti, B. B. , Bristow, A. F. , and Poole, S.
Cytokine Production

Cytokine Production  

Francesca Aloisi

in Neuroglia (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2004
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199363841
DOI: 
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0022
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Neuroscience
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195152227
that cytokines are pleiotropic, redundant to some degree, and induce the production of other cytokines , the specific sites and mechanisms of action of cytokines in the above processes have proved difficult to unravel. This chapter will discuss recent research on cytokines that are produced by and/or act on glial cells, focusing on those involved in the regulation of inflammatory, immune, and tissue repair processes. Cytokines in the Nervous
Anti-cytokine biologics

Anti-cytokine biologics  

Andrew J. K. Östör

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0082
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
blockade of IL-1 in humans has been less successful. 6 Apart from the reduced efficacy compared with other anti- cytokine biologics, the daily subcutaneous injections were less well tolerated by patients. Safety of anti- cytokine biologics As cytokines are critical for homeostasis, it may be anticipated that blockade of these molecules would result in a number of deleterious effects. In general, however, the major side-effect profile of anti- cytokine biologics has been favourable. 6 As more than 2 million patients worldwide have received infliximab, adalimumab
Immunology and cytokine pathways

Immunology and cytokine pathways  

Bruce Kirkham

in Oxford Textbook of Psoriatic Arthritis

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Rheumatology
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191801075
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198737582.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198737582
anti-inflammatory properties and influence cells locally or systemically. Cytokines are often grouped into families by structure, and many cytokines have multiple effects [ 5 ]. An important role of cytokines is to coordinate immune and bystander non-immune cell activity in response to a stimulus, often infectious in nature. Many cytokines are found at sites of inflammation such as an inflamed joint. It is difficult to discern if a particular cytokine plays a key role in a particular arthropathy. Cytokine -targeted therapies have given us important information on this question
Cytokine and Chemokine Receptors and               Signaling

Cytokine and Chemokine Receptors and Signaling  

Duane R. Wesemann and Etty N. Benveniste

in Neuroglia (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2004
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199363841
DOI: 
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0011
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Neuroscience
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195152227
cytokines , chemokines, and adhesion molecules (for review see John et al., 2003 ). Interleukin-1 Signaling Interleukin-1 is one of the most pleiotropic cytokines and has effects on nearly every cell in the body. Upon activation by IL-1, cells are induced to produce a large variety of mediators that regulate immune reactivity and inflammation such as cytokines , cytokine receptors, a
Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth                 Factor Receptors and Signaling

Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factor Receptors and Signaling  

Erik W. G. M. Boddeke, Bart J. L. Eggen, and Knut P. H. Biber

in Neuroglia (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2012
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199353200
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199794591.003.0022
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Neuroscience
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199794591
properties have been reported for IL-6–type cytokines , and this cytokine family is also referred to as gp130 cytokines . IL-6–type cytokines are important for normal development of the brain by regulating proliferation and maintenance of stem cells, neurogenesis, gliogenesis, and cell survival ( Bauer et al. 2007 ; Lee et al. 2008 ). Apart from their role in development, IL-6–type cytokines regulate a variety of proinflammatory and an
Psychiatric consequences of cancer treatments: hormone and cytokine treatments

Psychiatric consequences of cancer treatments: hormone and cytokine treatments  

Andrew Hodgkiss

in Biological Psychiatry of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191820854
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198759911.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Psychiatry
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198759911
likely be among such protein products. Cytokine treatments Cytokines are proteins and glycoproteins released by the cells of the immune system, and act as chemical signals. Interferons and interleukins are examples of cytokines . They are sometimes known as ‘the hormones of the immune system’. Strictly speaking, they do not have an endocrine function, but exert both autocrine and paracrine effects. Rather than the chemical signal being carried in the bloodstream to act on the receptors of distant cells, cytokines act on the cell that made them, or diffuse locally
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Due to Cytokine Signaling Defects (IL2RG, JAK3, IL7R, IL2RA, JAK3 and STAT5B)

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Due to Cytokine Signaling Defects (IL2RG, JAK3, IL7R, IL2RA, JAK3 and STAT5B)  

Jennifer M. Puck, Fabio Candotti, Luigi Notarangelo, and Chaim Roifman

in Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: A Molecular and Genetic Approach (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Nov 2013
eISBN: 
9780199348817
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780195389838.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Pathology, Immunology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195389838
in patients with mutations in intracellular mediators of cytokine signals, STAT5b, Lck (see below), and Tyk2 (see Chapter 38. Hyper-IgE Recurrent Infection Syndromes 38 ); additional patients with B + SCID have defects yet to be characterized and understood at the molecular level. Cytokine Signaling Through the JAK-STAT Pathway The effects of cytokines are mediated through interaction with specific receptors to phosphorylate specific intracellular proteins. Transmembrane receptors of the cytokine receptor superfamily do not have intrinsic kinase activity
Innate immunity and the inflammatory cascade

Innate immunity and the inflammatory cascade  

Marianna Parlato and Jean-Marc Cavaillon

in Oxford Textbook of Critical Care (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Critical Care
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810398
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0299
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Critical Care
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199600830
antibodies targeting endogenous cytokines , or mice lacking the functional gene for a given cytokine or cytokine receptor, have unravelled the role of these mediators. For example, the use of anti-TNF- α ‎ antibodies in a caecal ligature and puncture (CLP) model employed to mimic polymicrobial sepsis revealed the key role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α ‎ in fighting the microbial insult. Of note is that the great number of pathogens that have developed strategies to inhibit cytokines further illustrates the central role of cytokines in the host defence against infection
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis  

Catherine Swales, Paul Wordsworth, and Raashid Luqmani  (ed.)

in Rheumatoid Arthritis (Oxford Rheumatology Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Rheumatology Library
Published Online: 
May 2011
eISBN: 
9780191740213
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199556755.003.0002
Career: 
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Specialty: 
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780199556755
we will focus on the local effects of cytokines on synovial tissue. Table 2.1 lists the cells and mechanisms likely to be implicated in RA. Table 2.1 Cells, cytokines and mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis Cells T cells Enhancing disease through production of cytokines Cells B cells Enhancing disease through production of immune complexes and cytokines Cells Macrophages Enhancing disease through production of cytokines Cells Fibroblasts Enhancing disease through production of cytokines and prolongation of T cell survival Cells
The inflammatory response to cardiothoracic surgery

The inflammatory response to cardiothoracic surgery  

William T. McBride and Esther R. McBride

in Oxford Textbook of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Anaesthesia
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794186
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199653478.003.0005
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Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Anaesthetics
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780199653478
chemotaxis ( 29 ). Increases in the anti-inflammatory cytokines The phased plasma anti-inflammatory cytokine response compensates for any unwanted systemic effects of pro-inflammatory mediators. Also, the constant presence in plasma of background anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ra and TNFsr1 and 2 provides protection against any spillover into the circulation of locally produced pro-inflammatory cytokines . This anti-inflammatory protective shield has been elsewhere called ‘safe systemic cytokine capacity’ ( 10 ). Renal control The kidneys have
Immune Mechanisms and Inflammation and Their Treatment Impact

Immune Mechanisms and Inflammation and Their Treatment Impact  

Alice Russell, Carmine M. Pariante, and Valeria Mondelli

in The Bipolar Book: History, Neurobiology, and Treatment

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780190213077
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199300532.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Psychiatry
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199300532
). When administered chronically, though, cytokines are associated with a flattening of the cortisol response and also increased evening cortisol levels. Inflammatory cytokines can disrupt glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function, while decreasing GR expression ( Pace, Hu, & Miller, 2007 ). For example, cytokines have been found to inhibit GR function in cytokine -releasing immune cells by acting on GR translocation or on GR-mediated gene transcription, resulting in a deregulated production of other proinflammatory cytokines . Mechanisms described include activation of
Systemic treatment: immunotherapy

Systemic treatment: immunotherapy  

Bernard Escudier, Marine Gross Goupil, Christophe Massard, and Karim Fizazi

in Renal Cancer (Oxford Oncology Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2010
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Oncology Library
Published Online: 
Sep 2011
eISBN: 
9780191740282
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199562312.003.0006
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Radiology, Clinical Oncology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199562312
efforts are warranted. Identification of clinical and/or biological predictors of response to these cytokines remains an area of active investigation. As noted earlier the addition of chemotherapy to cytokine regimens, despite initial reports of high response rates and benefits in small randomized trials, did not show definitive benefits over cytokine monotherapy when subjected to a large randomized comparison. In summary, these studies demonstrate a modest benefit of cytokine monotherapy in unselected cohorts, and suggest that the greatest benefit is achieved when applied
Psychoneuroimmunology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Psychoneuroimmunology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Rebecca Hannah Bind and Carmine M. Pariante

in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2018
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2018
eISBN: 
9780190265533
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780190259440.003.0021
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Psychiatry
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190259440
greater cytokine activity TNF- α ‎ ↑ 16 Medication status analyzed in 7 studies, 4 in which medication attenuated cytokine activity MDD analyzed in 7 studies, 3 in which PTSD alone produced greater cytokine activity IFN- α ‎ ↑ 3 Medication status analyzed in 2 studies, both in which medication attenuated cytokine activity MDD analyzed in 2 studies, none in which PTSD alone produced greater cytokine activity CRP ↑ 28 Medication status analyzed in 4 studies, 3 in which medication attenuated cytokine activity
Neuroendocrine and immune             crosstalk in major depression

Neuroendocrine and immune crosstalk in major depression  

Timothy G. Dinan and Peter Fitzgerald

in Understanding Depression: A translational approach

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2009
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2013
eISBN: 
9780191768859
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199533077.003.0016
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Psychiatry
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199533077
commonly cytokines have been classified into families of interleukins, tumour necrosis factors (TNF), interferons (INF), chemokines, haematopoietins, and colony-stimulating factors (CSF). As many cytokines exert a number of different actions, they may in fact belong to more than one cytokine family. In the broadest terms the cytokines can be classed as pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF act as pro-inflammatory cytokines . Their actions
The metabolic and nutritional response to critical illness

The metabolic and nutritional response to critical illness  

Linda-Jayne Mottram and Gavin G. Lavery

in Oxford Textbook of Critical Care (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Critical Care
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810398
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0202
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Critical Care
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199600830
TLRs initiate the nuclear factor kappa-beta (NF- κβ ‎) transcription pathway, which ultimately generates cytokine proteins. Note that some cytokines can be released more readily in response to catecholamines with no requirement for gene transcription. Tumour necrosis factor α ‎ (TNF α ‎) has a positive effect on NF- κβ ‎ and is responsible for triggering further cytokine release, in what is described clinically as the ‘ cytokine storm’. There are several cytokine families ( Table 202.1 ) including the interleukins, interferons, tumour necrosis factors, chemokines

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