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Sepsis

Sepsis  

Heather Baid, Fiona Creed, and Jessica Hargreaves

in Oxford Handbook of Critical Care Nursing (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Series: 
Oxford Handbooks in Nursing
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191770548
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198701071.003.0011
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse, Trainee Nurse
Specialty: 
Medical Skills, Nursing Skills, Critical Care
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701071
Chapter 11 Sepsis Introduction Introduction Sepsis presentation Sepsis presentation Severe sepsis presentation Severe sepsis presentation Neutropenic sepsis Neutropenic sepsis Sepsis 6 Sepsis 6 Early goal-directed therapy Early goal-directed therapy Sepsis care bundles Sepsis care bundles Management of severe sepsis Management of severe sepsis Introduction Despite an extensive amount of research aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis and translating this into
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Kamna S. Balhara, Basem F. Khishfe, and Jamil D. Bayram

in Infectious Diseases Emergencies

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Emergencies
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780199390779
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199976805.003.0004
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199976805
needed). Severe Sepsis Bundles : Following the 2008 evidence-based recommendations, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommends the implementation of the Severe Sepsis Bundles, which are evidence-based “groups” of individual therapies whose goals must be completed in patients with severe sepsis , septic shock, and/or a lactate of greater than 4 mmol/L (36 mg/dL). These bundles have been designed to achieve a 25% reduction in mortality from severe sepsis or septic shock. There are two Severe Sepsis Bundles: Severe Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle and Severe Sepsis Management Bundle
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Muhammad Raza

in Oxford Textbook of Fundamentals of Surgery

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Surgery
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810817
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199665549.003.0020
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Surgery
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199665549
symptoms of systemic infection and, in severe cases, sepsis . The term ‘septicaemia’ is a layman’s expression of bacteraemia (blood poisoning) associated with sepsis , severe sepsis , or septic shock. Pathophysiology Pathophysiology of sepsis constitutes systemic responses to bacteria and impairment of end organs. Whereas sepsis is clinically different from severe sepsis and septic shock, no theory currently proposed adequately accounts for the transition. Types of bacterial species Infection and sepsis may involve bacteria in a commensal relationship
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Susan Gaeta

in Internal Medicine Issues in Palliative Cancer Care

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2015
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780199375066
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199329755.003.0032
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Palliative Medicine, Radiology, Clinical Oncology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199329755
more likely to develop sepsis then noncancer patients because of their immunosuppressed state due to chemotherapy and/or underlying malignancy. • Since the signs and symptoms of sepsis are nonspecific, it is important to consider sepsis in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute deterioration. • Early diagnosis and treatment of sepsis are essential to reducing the risk of progression to severe sepsis and/or septic shock, which in turn would lower the need for an intensive care unit admission and decrease mortality from sepsis . • The case-fatality
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Munish H. Lapsia and David T. Huang

in Rapid Response System: A Practical Guide

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Series: 
Pittsburgh Critical Care Medicine
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780190612504
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780190612474.003.0013
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Critical Care, Anaesthetics, Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190612474
sensitive and nonspecific. 2 Figure 13.1 Clinical Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions Incidence The reported incidence of sepsis is increasing, likely reflecting greater recognition and aging populations with more comorbidities. Although the true incidence is unknown, conservative estimates indicate that sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide. 3 Sepsis is a common cause for rapid response team (RRT) calls and the proportion of RRT calls associated with sepsis can be >50%. 4 , 5 Etiology, Pathogens and Risk
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Graham Cooke

in Diagnosis and Treatment in Internal Medicine

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2018
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191840005
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199568741.003.0309
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199568741
309 Sepsis Graham Cooke and Jaime Vera Definition of the disease Sepsis is a clinical syndrome resulting from infection that is characterized by activation of the the immune and coagulation systems. The pathogenesis of sepsis is complex and may differ according to the host’s immunological and physiological statues prior to infection. Symptoms of the disease Sepsis syndrome can be associated with a range of signs and symptoms that differ from patient to patient (see Box Box 309.1 Diagnostic criteria for sepsis syndrome 309.1 ). There
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Dr Rosie Macfadyen and Dr Christopher Hoy

in Oxford Case Histories in Anaesthesia

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Series: 
Oxford Case Histories
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191789526
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198704867.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Anaesthetics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198704867
Case 2.3 Sepsis Background The mortality from acute bacterial sepsis in the intensive care population remains high, at around 30%, with little change over the past decade, despite considerable advances in intensive care therapies. Currently, there is a global initiative to promote the early recognition of sepsis and rapid and aggressive delivery of sepsis care ‘bundles’. Learning outcomes 1 Define the key recognition points of sepsis and septic shock 2 Understand the principles of the rapid delivery of the ‘ Sepsis Six’ bundle
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Charlotte Evans, Anne Creaton, Marcus Kennedy, and Terry Martin (eds)

in Retrieval Medicine (Oxford Specialist Handbooks)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191789014
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198722168.003.0011
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722168
Chapter 11 Sepsis Sepsis syndromes Sepsis syndromes Sepsis and the immunocompromised host Sepsis and the immunocompromised host Respiratory sepsis Respiratory sepsis Urosepsis Urosepsis Gastrointestinal and abdominal sepsis Gastrointestinal and abdominal sepsis Infective endocarditis Infective endocarditis Central nervous system infections Central nervous system infections Spinal epidural abscess Spinal epidural abscess Obstetric and gynaecological sepsis Obstetric and gynaecological sepsis Necrotizing
Sepsis

Sepsis  

Ashis Banerjee and Chris Hargreaves

in A Resuscitation Room Guide (Oxford Specialist Handbooks)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks
Published Online: 
Jan 2012
eISBN: 
9780191730702
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199298075.003.0013
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine, Anaesthetics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199298075
(or PaCO 2 <4.3 kPa (32mmHg)) • White cell count >12 000 cells/mm 3 or <4000 cells/mm 3 or >10% immature (band) forms. • For every 1°C rise in body temperature, the heart rate increases by 10 bpm and the respiratory rate by four breaths per min. Sepsis = SIRS + documented source of infection Sepsis syndrome = sepsis + altered organ perfusion or evidence of dysfunction of one or more end-organs: • Cardiovascular system: lactate >1.2mmol/L; SVR <800dynes/s/cm 3 • Respiratory: PaO 2 /FiO 2 <30; PaO 2 <9.3kPa • Renal: urine output <120mL over 4h CNS: GCS <15 in
Sepsis Syndrome

Sepsis Syndrome  

Andrew D Badley

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Mayo Clinic Scientific Press
Published Online: 
Jun 2012
eISBN: 
9780199929641
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0027
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199827626
27 Sepsis Syndrome Andrew D. Badley, MD I. Introduction A. Definitions 1. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): the specific host systemic response that may be elicited by various stimuli, including infection, burns, pancreatitis, ischemia, trauma, hemorrhage, immune-mediated tissue injury, and exogenous stimuli 2. Sepsis : SIRS resulting from infection 3. Sepsis syndrome : sepsis with altered tissue perfusion of vital organs (resulting in oliguria, hypoxemia, elevated levels of lactate, or altered mentation or any combination
Sepsis Syndrome

Sepsis Syndrome  

Joshua A. Englert and Rebecca Marlene Baron

in The Brigham Intensive Review of Internal Medicine

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191742620
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199358274.003.0039
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Primary Care
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199358274
strategies for sepsis , as ongoing and future trials will continue to optimize our care of these critically ill patients. Figure 39.2. Schematic overview of an approach to management of sepsis syndrome from time of presentation. Additional Reading Angus DC , van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med . 2013 Aug 29;369(9):840–851. Baron RM , et al. Pathobiology of sepsis : Are we still asking the same questions? Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol . 2006;34:129–134. Hotchkiss RS , Karl IE. The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis . N Engl
Sepsis syndrome

Sepsis syndrome  

Mike Sharland (ed.)

in Manual of Childhood Infections (Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Paediatrics): The Blue Book (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks, OSHs in Paediatrics
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191796142
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198729228.003.0031
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Paediatrics, Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198729228
the lungs which prevents extubation.Brahm Goldstein, Brett Giroir, Adrienne Randolph, et al ., International paediatric sepsis consensus conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in paediatrics, Paediatric Critical Care Medicine, Vol 6, No 1. 1 Septic shock is defined as sepsis and cardiovascular organ dysfunction ( Box Box 31.2 Organ dysfunction criteria 31.2 ). Causative organisms Organisms responsible for sepsis syndrome in infants and children include N. meningitidis (commonest), E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella , Hib, and
AKI and sepsis

AKI and sepsis  

Jorge Cerdá

in Renal and Metabolic Disorders

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2012
Series: 
Pittsburgh Critical Care Medicine
Published Online: 
Aug 2013
eISBN: 
9780199353026
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199751600.003.0003
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Critical Care, Clinical Medicine, Nephrology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199751600
Chapter 3 AKI and sepsis Jorge Cerdá Sepsis is a highly prevalent complication among critically ill patients, affecting 30–40 percent of the population. Up to 25 percent of those patients have sepsis at ICU admission. Commonest sepsis sources are respiratory and intrabdominal. As the incidence of sepsis increases, so does patient mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis : up to 65 percent of patients with septic shock develop AKI and their mortality is as high as 20–60 percent. The complication is commoner and deadlier
Sepsis and septic shock

Sepsis and septic shock  

Abdullah Jibawi, Mohamed Baguneid, and Arnab Bhowmick

in Current Surgical Guidelines (2 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191836343
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198794769.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Surgery
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198794769
Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines (2016). • Care of the critically ill surgical patient (CCrISP) 2010. Basic facts • Definitions — sepsis is a syndrome of systematic inflammatory process caused by infection. The spectrum ranges in severity from mild sepsis to refractory septic shock ( Box Box 18.1 Definitions in sepsis 18.1 ). • Incidence — sepsis accounts for over 25% of potentially preventable in-hospital deaths. Septic shock is associated with >40–50% mortality rate. • Clinical features —related to the severity of sepsis and organ
The sepsis resuscitation bundle

The sepsis resuscitation bundle  

Adham KhalekJeff Keep, Emmanuel Rivers

in Challenging Concepts in Emergency Medicine: Cases with Expert Commentary

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Series: 
Challenging Concepts
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191813313
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199654093.003.0001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199654093
minute, oxygen saturation 87 % on room air. The potential diagnosis of sepsis is recognized and he is moved to the resuscitation room for further assessment and interventions. See Box Box 1.1 Clinical summary of sepsis 1.1 for a clinical summary of sepsis . Box 1.1 Clinical summary of sepsis Sepsis describes a spectrum of illness, the severe end of which represents some of the sickest patients seen in the ED. • It represents a growing problem; in the UK, cases of severe sepsis requiring admission to the intensive treatment care unit (ITU) have risen
Sepsis in obstetrics

Sepsis in obstetrics  

Nuala Lucas, Colleen D. Acosta, and Marian Knight

in Oxford Textbook of Obstetric Anaesthesia

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Anaesthesia
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191819759
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198713333.003.0034
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Anaesthetics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198713333
/dL or > 10% immature (band) forms. Sepsis Sepsis is the systemic response to infection. Thus in sepsis , the clinical signs describing SIRS are present together with definitive evidence of infection. Severe sepsis Sepsis is considered severe when it is associated with organ dysfunction, hypoperfusion, or hypotension. The manifestations of hypoperfusion may include, but are not limited to, lactic acidosis, oliguria, or an acute alteration in mental status. Septic shock Septic shock is sepsis with hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation
Sepsis and Septic Shock

Sepsis and Septic Shock  

Charles R. Sims and Thomas B. Comfere

in Mayo Clinic Critical and Neurocritical Care Board Review

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2019
Series: 
Medical Specialty Board Review
Published Online: 
Jul 2019
eISBN: 
9780190862954
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780190862923.003.0060
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Emergency Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190862923
60 Sepsis and Septic Shock Charles R. Sims III, MD ; Thomas B. Comfere, MD Goals • Define the evolving classifications of sepsis . • Review epidemiologic factors, predisposing conditions, and clinical manifestations of a critically ill patient with sepsis . • Summarize evidence-based protocols for evaluation and management of sepsis . • Review common neurologic complications associated with sepsis . Introduction Sepsis is the most common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although its incidence has
Comatose and Sepsis

Comatose and Sepsis  

Eelco F. M. Wijdicks

in The Comatose Patient

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199381654
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199331215.003.0076
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Neurology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199331215
are other clinical scenarios in sepsis that can lead to a global brain dysfunction. The causes of coma in sepsis are shown in Table 76-1 .3,8,11 Septic encephalopathy reflects a diffuse bihemispheric brain injury. Endocarditis with embolic infarcts or multiple microabscesses ( Chapter 77 Comatose and Endocarditis 77 ), acute renal and liver failure associated with multiple organ failure, diffuse intravascular coagulation, cortical ischemic injury from cardiovascular failure, and shock could all play a role. Therefore, how sepsis decreases consciousness and in some
Severe sepsis in pregnancy

Severe sepsis in pregnancy  

Peacock Dr Linzi and Clark Dr Vicki

in Oxford Case Histories in Anaesthesia

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Series: 
Oxford Case Histories
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191789526
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198704867.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Anaesthetics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198704867
Case 5.5 Severe sepsis in pregnancy Background Sepsis is now the leading cause of direct maternal deaths in the UK, with a rate of 1.13 deaths per 100 000 maternities. There was a dramatic rise in this from the previous triennium (2003–2005) where it accounted for 0.85 deaths per 100 000 maternities. This is the first time that sepsis has been the leading cause of direct maternal death since reporting started in 1952. In the 2006–2008 CMACE report, sepsis accounted for a total of 29 deaths—26 direct and three late deaths. Group A β-haemolytic
Sepsis in pregnancy

Sepsis in pregnancy  

Stergios K. Doumouchtsis, S. Arulkumaran, Stergios K. Doumouchtsis, and Austin Ugwumadu

in Emergencies in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Emergencies in
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191742910
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199651382.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651382
Chapter 7 Sepsis in pregnancy Contributors Stergios K. Doumouchtsis and Austin Ugwumadu Contents Maternal sepsis Maternal sepsis Postpartum infections Postpartum infections Maternal sepsis The onset of maternal sepsis may be insidious. Obstetric patients who are young, fit, and healthy compensate well, but may deteriorate rapidly. The signs and symptoms may be non-specific. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in order to prevent septic shock and severe maternal morbidity and mortality.

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