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Aetiopathogenesis

Aetiopathogenesis  

Nicola Dalbeth

in Gout (Oxford Rheumatology Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Rheumatology Library
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191810978
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198748311.003.0002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198748311
Chapter 2 Aetiopathogenesis Key points • The aetiopathogenesis of gout is initiated by urate overproduction and uric acid under-excretion leading to hyperuricaemia. • Foods such as seafood, red meat, beer, and sugar-sweetened beverages contribute to overproduction. • Under-excretion is caused by renal and gut uric acid transporters such as SLC2A9, ABCG2, and URAT1. • In gout there is formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints, with acute gouty arthritis mediated by the innate immune system in response to these crystals. • Factors
Aetiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus

Aetiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus  

Peter Lloyd, Sarah Doaty, and Bevra H. Hahn

in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Oxford Rheumatology Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Rheumatology Library
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191802287
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198739180.003.0002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Allied Health Professional
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198739180
induced Anti-C1q Low specificity Low sensitivity 33 Nephritis hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis , Felty’s syndrome, rheumatoid vasculitis, Sjogren’s syndrome Anti-histone Low specificity Low sensitivity 70–80 Drug-induced LE Scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis , Felty’s syndrome, Sjogren’s syndrome, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis , mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, malignancy, liver disease Abbreviations: ACR: American College of Rheumatology; LE: lupus
Systemic lupus erythematosus—clinical features and aetiopathogenesis

Systemic lupus erythematosus—clinical features and aetiopathogenesis  

Caroline Gordon

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0117_update_002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
Inflammatory arthritis in lupus is usually a symmetrical polyarthritis affecting small joints but it may present as a monoarthritis or oligoarthritis affecting medium and occasionally large joints. It is non-erosive and is associated with joint tenderness and stiffness but more limited amounts of swelling than is seen in other forms of inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis . Nevertheless, effusions of the knees, ankles, wrists, and even the small joints of the hand may be seen. Patients with such severe inflammatory arthritis are prone to
Anti-cytokine biologics

Anti-cytokine biologics  

Andrew J. K. Östör

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0082
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
, however, with the cost–benefit ratio of IL-1 antagonism with anakinra being deemed less favourable. A number of novel anti-cytokine biologics are in clinical trials which will increase the options to achieve individualized treatment and disease remission. Aetiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis It is clear that cytokines are critical in the pathogenesis of RA, with the best-characterized being TNF α ‎ and IL-6. Their upregulation leads to the pathological manifestations of the condition including synovitis, and cartilage and bone destruction. Although the
Common musculoskeletal conditions

Common musculoskeletal conditions  

Manoj Sivan, Margaret Phillips, Ian Baguley, and Melissa Nott

in Oxford Handbook of Rehabilitation Medicine (3 edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2019
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Aug 2019
eISBN: 
9780191827389
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198785477.003.0035
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Allied Health Professions
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198785477
promotion of self-management Principles of patient education and promotion of self-management 521 Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis 522 Inflammatory arthritis : rheumatoid arthritis Inflammatory arthritis : rheumatoid arthritis Inflammatory arthritis : rheumatoid arthritis 525 Inflammatory arthritis : spondyloarthropathies Inflammatory arthritis : spondyloarthropathies Inflammatory arthritis : spondyloarthropathies 530 Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia 532 Chronic fatigue syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome 535 References
Neutrophilic dermatoses

Neutrophilic dermatoses  

Pia Moinzadeh and Thomas Krieg

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0166
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
Gastroenterol 2003;98(8):1821–1826. 40. Sanchez JL , Cruz A . Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;22(5 Pt 2):922–925. 41. Brown TS , Fearneyhough PK , Burruss JB , Callen JP . Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis in a woman with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis . J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;45(4):596–600. 42. Lazarov A , Mor A , Cordoba M , Mekori YA . Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis: an initial dermatological manifestation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis . J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16(1):74–76. 43. Panopalis
Pain and fatigue

Pain and fatigue  

Candy McCabe, Richard Haigh, Helen Cohen, and Sarah Hewlett

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0012_update_002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
analysis. Int J Nurs Stud 1996;33(5):519–529. 13. Hewlett S , Cockshott Z , Byron M et al. Patients’ perceptions of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis : Overwhelming, uncontrollable, ignored. Arthritis Rheum 2005;53:697–702. 14. Nicklin J , Cramp F , Kirwan J , Urban M , Hewlett S . Collaboration with patients in the design of patient reported outcome measures: Capturing the experience of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis . Arthritis Care Res 2010;62(11):1552–1558. 15. Melzack R . Evolution of the neuromatrix theory of pain. Pain Pract 2005;5(2):85–94.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: medical aspects

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: medical aspects  

Clarissa Pilkington

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2011
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Apr 2011
eISBN: 
9780199608249
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199550647.003.013002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Surgery, Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199550647
family history of psoriasis, who are positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) or HLA-B27 or who have a HLA-B27 associated disease or an inflammatory bowel disease are excluded from a diagnosis of oligo JIA. Polyarticular juvenile inflammatory arthritis Rheumatoid factor negative Poly JIA patients have more than five joints affected within 6 months of disease onset. It is the second most common subgroup and like oligo JIA, the age of onset is early (median age 6 years) and females are most commonly affected. The arthritis is symmetrical, often involving the wrists, metac
Rheumatology

Rheumatology  

Professor Margaret Callan and Dr Jananath Bhathiya Wijeyekoon

in Acute Medicine (Oxford Desk Reference)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2016
Series: 
Oxford Desk References
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191742484
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199565979.003.00016
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Acute Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199565979
CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis , suggests that T cells play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis . However, there is also evidence for involvement of other components of the immune system. The finding of rheumatoid factor (antibodies directed against the Fc region of IgG) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis has long suggested a failure of B cell regulation. The high specificity of antibodies directed against citrullinated self proteins for rheumatoid arthritis further implies an abnormality of B cell tolerance
Forearm, hand, and wrist

Forearm, hand, and wrist  

Karen Walker-Bone and Benjamin Ellis

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0153
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
g. metastasis or fibromyalgia syndrome ( Table 153.1 ). Table 153.1 Classification of hand and wrist disorders Articular Arthritis of the hand/wrist joints Rheumatoid arthritis or other inflammatory arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Gout Septic arthritis Osteoarthritis Traumatic Neoplasm (primary or secondary) Periarticular Jaccoud’s arthropathy Hypermobility syndrome Rheumatoid nodules Calcinosis Tophus (gout) Dupuytren’s contracture Ganglion Tenosynovitis (flexor or extensor) Trigger finger De Quervain’s

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