Monthly Focus


ESC CardioMed is home to over 700 chapters, written by over 1,000 international experts. Updated three times a year, the overall depth and volume of the text is continually growing. Discover more in ESC CardioMed with our monthly focus topics, designed to help you get the most out of your subscription. We've made the current month's chapters free to read, so start discovering what ESC CardioMed has to offer.

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Incidence and definition of takotsubo syndrome


Takotsubo syndrome is also commonly known as apical ballooning syndrome and stress cardiomyopathy. Other less common terms used to describe the condition include neurogenic stunned myocardium, broken heart syndrome, and ampulla cardiomyopathy.
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Triggers of takotsubo syndrome


Takotsubo syndrome can be precipitated by emotional or physical stress. The association between bereavement and TTS has coined the term ‘broken heart syndrome’.

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ECG features and arrhythmias in takotsubo syndrome

Takotsubo syndrome is typically characterized by dynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization changes, which consist of mild ST-segment elevation on presentation (acute phase) followed by T-wave inversion with QT interval prolongation within 24–48 h after presentation (subacute phase).
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Management of takotsubo syndrome

The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome is still elusive. Management is non-specific, extrapolated from established treatments for patients with acute coronary syndromes, and heart failure, or other medical or surgical conditions.
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