Figure 6.35 YPLL, DALY and HALE maps for the countries of the European Union. (A) Male YPLL. (B) Female YPLL. The YPLL is estimated against an age of death of 65. (C) Age-standardised DALYs per 100,000 population. (D) HALE. The YPLL and DALY maps are for infectious and parasitic diseases at the beginning of the new millennium. The HALE map gives the estimated healthy life expectancy for all persons at birth. In the British Isles, although the total burden of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases was small at the millennium, the map shows that the greatest YPLL and lowest expectations of good health were in Scotland and the London area. The conurbations in South and West Yorkshire, Greater Manchester, and in the West Midlands also experienced comparatively high risks of premature mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases as did the Welsh Marches.

Sources: Figures (A) and (B) reproduced from Eurostat Statistical Books, Health Statistics – Atlas on Mortality in the European Union, Figures 6.3 and 6.4, pp. 46–47, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Copyright © European Communities, 2009, with permission from the European Union; (C) Data from WHO Global Burden of Disease data by member countries, 2004, available from and (D) Data from World Health Organization, World Health Report, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Copyright © 2004.